HOUSE MUSIC PART 2
In Detroit a proto-techno music sound began to emerge with the DJ recordings and mixes of Juan Atkins, Derrick May, and Kevin Saunderson in the early and mid-1980s. Detroit techno fused eclectic sounds into the signature Detroit techno sound, including the early form of house music: Chicago house.
Atkins, a former member of Cybotron, released “No UFOs” as Model 500 in 1985, which became a regional hit. Atkins followed this by dozens of tracks on Transmat, Metroplex, and Fragile. One of the most unusual songs was “Strings of Life” by Derrick May (under the name Rhythm Is Rhythm), a darker, more intellectual strain of early Detroit techno. .
One of the earliest hits was “Big Fun” by Inner City.UK: 1986–early 1990s With house music already important in the 1980s dance club scene, eventually house penetrated the UK pop charts. London DJ “Evil” Eddie Richards spun at dance parties as a resident at the Clink Street club. Richards’ approach to house focuses on the deep basslines. .
Nicknamed the UK’s “Godfather of House”, he and Clink co-residents Kid Batchelor and Mr. C played a key role in early UK house. House first charted in the UK in Wolverhampton following on from the success of the Northern Soul scene. The record generally credited as the first house hit in the UK was Farley “Jackmaster” Funk’s “Love Can’t Turn Around“, which reached #10 in the UK singles chart in September 1986..
In January 1987, Chicago DJ/artist Steve “Silk” Hurley’s “Jack Your Body” reached number one in the UK, showing it was possible for house music to achieve crossover success in the pop charts. .
The same month also saw Raze enter the top 20 with “Jack the Groove”, and several further house hits reached the top ten that year. Stock Aitken Waterman (SAW) expensively-produced productions for Mel and Kim, including the number-one hit “Respectable”, added elements of the house to their previous Europop sound. .
SAW session group Mirage scored top-ten hits with “Jack Mix II” and “Jack Mix IV”, medleys of previous electro and Europop hits rearranged in a house music style. Key labels in the rise of house music in the UK included: • Jack Trax, which specialized in licensing US club hits for the British market (and released an influential series of compilation albums).• Rhythm King, which was set up as a hip hop label but also issued house records • Jive Records‘ Club Records imprint.
In March 1987, the UK tour of influential US DJs such as Knuckles, Jefferson, Fingers Inc. (Heard) and Adonis, on the DJ International Tour boosted house’s popularity in the UK..
Following the number-one success of MARRS‘ “Pump Up The Volume” in October, in 1987 to 1989, UK acts such as The Beatmasters, Krush, Coldcut, Yazz, Bomb The Bass, S-Express, and Italy’s Black Box opened the doors to house music success on the UK charts. Early British house music quickly set itself apart from the original Chicago house sound. .
Many of the early hits were based on sample montage, and unlike the US soulful vocals, in UK house, rap was often used for vocals (far more than in the US), and humor and wit was an important element..
The second best-selling British single of 1988 was an acid house record, the Coldcut-produced “The Only Way Is Up” by Yazz. One of the early club anthems, “Promised Land” by Joe Smooth, was covered and charted within a week by UK band The Style Council. Europeans embraced house and began booking important American house DJs to play at the big clubs, such as Ministry of Sound, whose resident, Justin Berkmann brought in US pioneer Larry Levan.
The house music club scene in cities such as Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Wolverhampton and London were provided with dance tracks by many underground Pirate Radio stations. Club DJs also brought in new house styles, which helped bolster this music genre. .
The earliest UK house and techno record labels such as Warp Records and Network Records (otherwise known as Kool Kat records) helped introduce American and later Italian dance music to Britain. These labels also promoted UK dance music acts. .
By the end of the 1980s, UK DJs Jenö, Thomas, Markie, and Garth moved to San Francisco and called their group the Wicked Crew. The Wicked Crew’s dance sound transmitted UK styles to the US, which helped to trigger the birth of the US west coast’s rave scene..
House was also being developed by DJs and record producers in the booming dance club scene in Ibiza. While no house artists or labels came from this tiny island at the time, mixing experiments and innovations done by Ibiza DJs helped to influence the house style. By the mid-1980s a distinct Balearic mix of house was discernible. .
Several influential clubs in Ibiza, such as Amnesia, with DJ Alfredo at the decks, were playing a mix of rock, pop, disco, and house. These clubs, fuelled by their distinctive sound and copious consumption of the club drug Ecstasy (MDMA), began to influence the British scene..
By late 1987, DJs such as Trevor Fung, Paul Oakenfold and Danny Rampling were bringing the Ibiza sound to key UK clubs such as the Haçienda in Manchester. Ibiza influences also spread to DJs working London clubs such as Shoom in Southwark, Heaven, Future, and Spectrum.
In the U.S., house music developed into a more sophisticated sound, moving beyond the rudimentary drum machine loops and short samples that had characterized early US houses. In Chicago, Marshall Jefferson formed the house group Ten City with Byron Burke, Byron Stingily, and Herb Lawson (from “Intensity”).
New York City-based performers such as Mateo & Matos and Blaze had slickly produced disco-infused house tracks. In Detroit, a proto-techno music sound began to emerge with the DJ recordings and mixes of Juan Atkins, Derrick May, and Kevin Saunderson.
Atkins, a former member of Cybotron, released “No UFOs” as Model 500 in 1985, which became a regional hit. Atkins follows this by dozens of tracks on Transmat, Metroplex, and Fragile. One of the most unusual songs was “Strings of Life” by Derrick May (under the name Rhythm Is Rhythm), a darker, more intellectual strain of house. “
Techno-Scratch” was released by the Knights Of The Turntable in 1984 which had a similar techno sound to Cybotron. The manager of the Factory nightclub and co-owner of the Haçienda, Tony Wilson, also promoted acid house culture on his weekly TV show.
The UK midlands also embraced the late 1980s house scene with illegal parties and raves and more legal dance clubs such as The Hummingbird.US: late 1980s–early 1990s
Back in America, the scene had still not progressed beyond a small number of clubs in Chicago, Detroit, Newark, and New York City. Newark-area DJ Tony Humphries has influenced the sounds of disco pioneer David Mancuso,
the host of the disco-era’s underground gay subculture loft parties. Humphries played his mixes in Newark NJ’s Club Zanzibar, where he developed his signature “Jersey Sound”, which mixed a soulful element with a rawer edgeThe Jersey Sound
DJ Tony Humphries began his residency at the Club Zanzibar in Newark, New Jersey in 1982 and, along with others, helped “spawn the sometimes raw but always soulful, gospel-infused subgenre” of deep house music known as the Jersey Sound.
The club scene also gave rise to the ball culture scene in Newark hotels and nightclubs.”Queen of House” Crystal Waters and other house luminaries performed on the Newark scene.
Abigail Adams’s house-music record label and store, Movin’ Records in Newark’s neighbor East Orange, New Jersey, was another contributor to the Jersey Sound.
Other regional scenes
Many independent Chicago-based record labels were also getting their artists on the dance charts. Detroit DJ Terrence Parker uses his advanced turntablism skills and his focus on precision to blend hip hop music DJing styles, such as rhythmic scratching, in his house mixes. Fellow Detroit spinner DJ
Minx is a notable woman house DJ. Her records on her Women on Wax label blend Parker-influenced turntablism precision with a funky style. In the UK, any house song released by a Chicago-based label was routinely considered a “must-play” at UK house music clubs. Paradise Garage in New York City was still a top club in the house era, just as it had been during the disco age.
The emergence of Todd Terry, a pioneer of the genre, demonstrated the continuum from the underground disco approach which moved to a new house sound. Terry’s cover of Class Action’s “Weekend” (mixed by Larry Levan) shows how Terry drew on newer hip-hop influences, such as the quicker sampling and the more rugged basslines.
In the late 1980s, Nu Groove Records launched and nurtured the careers of Rheji Burrell and Rhino Burrell, collectively known as Burrell (after a brief stay on Virgin America via Timmy Regisford and Frank Mendez). Nu Groove also had a stable of other NYC underground scene DJs. The Burrell’s created the “New York Underground” sound of house, and they did 30+
releases on this label featuring this sound. In the 2010s, Nu Groove Record releases like the Burrells’ enjoy a cult status among “crate diggers” and DJs. Mint-condition vinyl records by the Burrells from the 1980s can fetch high prices.
By the late 1980s, house DJing and production had moved to the US’s west coast, particularly to San Francisco, Oakland, Los Angeles, Fresno, San Diego, and Seattle.
Los Angeles saw an explosion of underground raves, where DJs mixed dance tracks. L.A. DJs Marques Wyatt and Billy Long spun at Jewel’s Catch One. In 1989, the L.A.-based, former EBN-OZN singer/rapper Robert Ozn started indie house label One Voice Records.
On released the Mike “Hitman” Wilson remix of Dada Nada‘s “Haunted House”, which garnered club and mix show radio play in Chicago, Detroit, and New York as well as in the U.K. and France. T
he record went up to number five on the Billboard Club Chart, marking it as the first house record by a white (Caucasian) artist to chart in the U.S. Dada Nada, the moniker for Ozn’s solo act, did his first releases in 1990, using a jazz-based Deep House style.
The Frankie Knuckles and David Morales remix of Dada Nada’s “Deep Love” (One Voice Records in the US, Polydor in the UK), featuring Ozn’s lush, crooning vocals and jazzy improvisational solos by muted trumpet, underscored Deep House’s progression into a genre that integrated jazz and pop songwriting and song forms (unlike acid house and techno).Late 1980s–1990s
In Britain, further experiments in the genre boosted its appeal. House and rave clubs such as Lakota and Cream emerged across Britain, hosting house and dance scene events. The ‘chilling out’ concept developed in Britain with ambient house albums such as The KLF‘s Chill Out and Analogue Bubblebath by Aphex Twin.
The Godskitchen superclub brand also began in the midst of the early 1990s rave scene. After initially hosting small nights in Cambridge and Northampton, the associated events scaled up at the Sanctuary Music Arena in Milton Keynes, in Birmingham and in Leeds. A new indie dance scene also emerged in the 1990s. I
n New York, bands such as Deee-Lite furthered the house’s international influence. Two distinctive tracks from this era were the Orb‘s “Little Fluffy Clouds” (with a distinctive vocal sample from Rickie Lee Jones) and the Happy Mondays‘ “Wrote for Luck” (“WFL”) which was transformed into a dance hit by Vince
In England, one of the few licensed venues was The Eclipse, which attracted people from up and down the country as it was open until the early hours. Due to the lack of licensed, legal dance event venues, house music promoters began organizing illegal events in unused warehouses, airplane hangars, and in the countryside.
The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 was a gov
ernment attempt to ban large rave dance events featuring music with “repetitive beats”, due to law enforcement allegations that these events were associated with illegal club drugs.
There were a number of “Kill the Bill” demonstrations by rave and electronic dance music fans. The Spiral Tribe dance event at Castle Morten was the last of these illegal raves, as the bill, which became law, in November 1994, made unauthorized house music dance events illegal in the UK.
Despite the new law, the music continued to grow and change, as typified by Leftfield with “Release the Pressure“, which introduced dub and reggae into the house sound. Leftfield’s prior releases, such as “Not Forgotten” released in 1990 on Sheffield’s Outer Rhythm records used a more typical sound.
A new generation of clubs such as Liverpool‘s Cream and the Ministry of Sound were opened to provide a venue for more commercial house sounds. Major record companies began to open “superclubs” promoting their own groups and acts. These superclubs entered into sponsorship deals initially with fast food, soft drink, and clothing companies.
Flyers in clubs in Ibiza often sported many corporate logos from sponsors.A new subgenre, Chicago hard house, was developed by DJs such as Bad Boy Bill, DJ Lynnwood, and DJ Irene, Richard “Humpty” Vission, mixing elements of Chicago house, funky house and hard house. Additionally, producers such as George Centeno, Darren Ramirez, and Martin O. Cairo developed the Los Angeles Hard House sound.
During the 2010s multiple new sounds in house music were developed by DJs, producers, and artists. Sweden had a “Swedish progressive house” with the emergence of Sebastian Ingrosso, Axwell, and Steve Angello. While all three artists had solo careers, when they formed a trio called Swedish House Mafia,
it showed that house could still produce chart-topping hits, such as their 2013 single “Don’t You Worry Child“, which cracked the Billboard top 10. Avicii was a Swedish DJ/artist known for his hits such as “Hey Brother“, “Addicted to You“, “The Days“, “The Nights“, “Levels“, “Waiting for Love“, and “Without You”.
Fellow Swedish DJ/artist Alesso collaborated with Calvin Harris, Usher, and David Guetta. In France, Justice blended garage and alternative rock influences into their pop-infused house tracks, creating a big and funky sound. Skrillex, a former alternative rock singer, mixed dubstep and pop into his UK house music.
During the 2010s, in the UK and in the US, many records labels stayed true to the original house music sound from the 1980s. It includes labels like Dynamic Music, Defected Records, Dirtybird, Fuse London, Exploited, Pampa, Cajual Records, Hot Creations,
Get Physical, and Pets Recordings. Netherlands brought together a concept of “Dirty Dutch”, an electro house subgenre characterized by abrasive lead synths and darker arpeggios, with prominent DJs being Chuckie, Hardwell, Laidbackuke, Afrojack, R3hab, Bingo Players, Quintino, Alvaro, Cedric Gervais, and 2G. Elsewhere,
fusion genres derivative of 2000s progressive house returned, especially with the help of DJs/artists Calvin Harris, Eric Prydz, Mat Zo, Above & Beyond and Fonzerelli in Europe Diplo, a DJ/producer from Tupelo,
Mississippi was able to blend underground sounds with mainstream styles. As he came from the Southern US, Diplo fused house music with rap and dance/pop, while also integrating more obscure Southern US genres.
Other North Americans playing house music include the Canadian Deadmau5 (known for his unusual mask and unique musical style), Kaskade, Steve Aoki, Porter Robinson, and Wolfgang Gartner. The growing popularity of such artists led to the emergence of electro house and progressive house sounds in popular music, such as singles like David Guetta's” feat. Avicii “Sunshine” and Axwell‘s remix of “In The Air.”
Big room house was increasingly popular since 2010, through international dance music festivals such as Tomorrowland, Ultra Music Festival, and Electric Daisy Carnival. In addition to these popular examples of house, there has also been a reunification of contemporary house and its roots. Many hip hop and R&B artists also turned to house music to add a mass appeal and dance floor energy to the music they produce.
Tropical house went onto the top 40 on the UK Singles Chart in 2015 with artists such as Kygo and Jonas Blue. In the mid-2010s, the influences of the house began to also be seen in Korean K-pop music, examples of this being f(x)‘s single “4 Walls” and SHINee‘s title track “View.”
Later in the 2010s, a more traditional house sound came to the forefront of the mainstream in the UK, with Calvin Harris‘s singles “One Kiss” and “Promises“, with the latter also incorporating elements of nu-disco and Italo house. These singles both went to No.1 in the UK, showing that a classic house sound could still have great success in the modern-day.,
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