Some History From The Gay Community

January 11, 2018
Crocodile Tears
March 11, 2019

From Then to Now!

96th century BCE – 50th century BCE

9,600 BCE – c. 5,000 BCE – Mesolithic rock art in Sicily depicts phallic male figures in pairs that have been interpreted variously, including as hunters, acrobats, religious initiates, and depictions of male homosexual intercourse

80th century BCE

8,000 BCE – San rock paintings in Zimbabwe depict homosexuality

8th millennium BCE – 2nd millennium BCE

7,000 BCE – c. 1,700 BCE – Among the sexual depictions in Neolithic and Bronze Age drawings and figurines from the Mediterranean are, as one author describes it, a "third sex" human figure having female breasts and male genitals or without distinguishing sex characteristics. In Neolithic Italy, female images are found in a domestic context, while images that combine sexual characteristics appear in burials or religious settings. In Neolithic Greece and Cyprus, figures are often dual-sexed or without identifying sexual characteristics

3rd millennium BCE

29th century BCE – 25th century BCE

2,900 BCE – c. 2,500 BCE – A burial of a suburb of Prague, Czech Republic, a male is buried in the outfit usually reserved for women. Archaeologists speculate that the burial corresponds to a transgender person or someone of the third sex

24th century BCE

2,400 BCE – Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum are believed to be the first recorded same-sex couple in history.

23rd century BCE or 23rd century BCE – 22nd century BCE 2,284 BCE – 2,246 BCE or 2,184 BCE – Pepi II Neferkare, who ruled the Kingdom of Egypt as an absolute monarchy under the title of Pharaoh of Egypt, is believed to have had a homosexual interpretation around nocturnal visits to his General Sasenet

15th century BCE – 12th century BCE

1,500 BCE – c. 1,101 BCE – The Code of Assura from either the Old Assyrian Empire or the Middle Assyrian Empire prescribes the following

"If a man tells another man, either privately or in a brawl, “Your wife is promiscuous; I will bring charges against her myself,” but he is unable to substantiate the charge, and cannot prove it, he is to be caned, be sentenced to a month’s hard labor for the king, be cut off, and pay one talent of lead."

Code of Assura

"If a man has secretly started a rumor about his neighbor saying, “He has allowed men to have sex with him,” or in a quarrel has told him in the presence of others, “Men have sex with you,” and then, “I will bring charges against you myself,” but is then unable to substantiate the charge, and cannot prove it, that man is to be caned, be sentenced to a month’s hard labor for the king, be cut off, and pay one talent of lead."

Code of Assura

"If a man has secretly started a rumor about his neighbor saying, “He has allowed men to have sex with him,” or in a quarrel has told him in the presence of others, “Men have sex with you,” and then, “I will bring charges against you myself,” but is then unable to substantiate the charge, and cannot prove it, that man is to be caned, be sentenced to a month’s hard labor for the king, be cut off, and pay one talent of lead."

Code of Assura

"If a man has had sex with his neighbor he has been charged and convicted, he is to be considered defiled and made into a eunuch."

Code of Assura

"If a man violates his own mother, it is a capital crime. If a man violates his daughter, it is a capital crime. If a man violates his son, it is the capital crime."

1st millennium BCE

700 BCE – The custom of castrating homosexual slaves and house servants is introduced into Anshan from conquered territories of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and the Median Empire

630 BCE – Dorian aristocrats in Crete adopt formal relations between adult aristocrats and adolescent boys; an inscription from Crete is the oldest record of the social institution of paiderastia among the Greeks Marriage between men in Greece was not legally recognized, but men might form life-long relationships originating in paiderastia ("pederasty," without the pejorative connotations of the English word). These partnerships were not dissimilar to heterosexual marriages except that the older person served as educator or mentor.

Sappho, a Greek lyric poet born on the island of Lesbos, was born between 630-612 BCE, and died around 570 BCE. The Alexandrians included her in the list of nine lyric poets. She was famous for her lesbian themes, giving her name and that of her homeland to the very definition of lesbianism (and the lesser used term of "sapphism"). She was exiled c. 600 BCE.

6th century BCE

540 – 530 BCE – Wall paintings from the Etruscan Tomb of the Bulls (Italian: Tomba di Tori), found in 1892 in the Monterozzi necropolis, Tarquinia, depict homosexual intercourse. The tomb is named for the pair of bulls who watch human sex scenes, one between a man and a woman, and the other between two men; these may be apotropaic or embody aspects of the cycle of regeneration and the afterlife

The three-chamber tomb was inscribed with the name of the deceased for whom it was originally built, Aranth Spurianas or Arath Spuria, and also depicts Achilles killing the Trojan prince Troilus, along with indications of Apollo cult

6th century BCE – 4th century

The Book of Leviticus is written during this period and within the text it states the following:

"You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination."Chapter 18, Verses 22

"If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall be put to death; their blood is upon them." Chapter 20, Verses 13

5th century BCE

486 BCE – Darius I adopts the Holiness Code of Leviticus for Persian Jews of the Achaemenid Empire, enacting the first ever state sanctioned death penalty for male same-sex relationships

440 BCE – Herodotus publishes Histories, stating in the book that Persians welcomed foreign customs, including adopting pederasty from the Greeks

4th century BCE

385 BCE – Plato publishes Symposium in which Phaedrus, Eryixmachus, Aristophanes and other Greek intellectuals argue that love between males is the highest form, while sex with women is lustful and utilitarian Socrates, however, differs. He demonstrates extreme self-control when seduced by the beautiful Alcibiades

350 BCE – Plato publishes Laws in which the Athenian stranger and his companions criticize homosexuality as being lustful and wrong for society because it does not further the species and may lead to irresponsible citizenry.

346 BCE - Aeschines speech Against Timarchus on trial for male prostitution, reveals Athenian attitudes to homosexualit

338 BCE – The Sacred Band of Thebes, a previously undefeated elite battalion made up of one hundred and fifty pederastic couples, is destroyed by the forces of Philip II of Macedon who bemoans their loss and praises their honour.[

330 BCE – Bagoas, favorite catamite to King Darius III, becomes catamite to King Alexander III of Macedon

3rd century BCE

250 BCE – The Vendidad is written during this period and within the text it states the following

Ahura Mazda answered: 'The man that lies with mankind as man lies with womankind, or as woman lies with mankind, is the man that is a Daeva; this one is the man that is a worshipper of the Daevas, that is a male paramour of the Daevas, that is a female paramour of the Daevas, that is a wife to the Daeva; this is the man that is as bad as a Daeva, that is in his whole being a Daeva; this is the man that is a Daeva before he dies, and becomes one of the unseen Daevas after death: so is he, whether he has lain with mankind as mankind, or as womankind

The guilty may be killed by any one, without an order from the Dastur, and by this execution an ordinary capital crime may be redeemed

3rd or 2nd century BCE

227 BCE, 226 BCE, 216 BCE, or 149 BCE – During the Roman Republic, the Lex Scantinia imposed penalties on those who committed a sex crime against a freeborn youth; infrequently mentioned or enforced, it may also have been used to prosecute male citizens who willingly took the passive role in homosexual relations.

It is unclear whether the penalty was death or a fine. For an adult male citizen to desire and engage in same-sex relations was considered natural and socially acceptable, as long as his partner was a male prostitute, slave or infamis, a person excluded from the legal protections accorded a citizen. In the Imperial period, the Lex Scantinia was revived by Domitian as part of his program of judicial and moral reform

1st century BCE

90s – 80s BCE – Quintus Lutatius Catulus was among a circle of poets who made short, light Hellenistic poems fashionable in the late Republic. Both his surviving epigrams address a male as an object of desire, signaling a new homoerotic aesthetic in Roman culture

57 – 54 BCE – Catullus writes the Carmina, including love poems to Juventius, boasting of sexual prowess with youth and violent invectives against "passive" homosexuals.

50 BCE – The Lex Julia de vi publica, a Roman Republic law, was passed to define rape as forced sex against "boy, woman, or anyone" and the rapist was subject to execution. Men who had been raped were exempt from the loss of legal or social standing suffered by those who submitted their bodies to use for the pleasure of others; a male prostitute or entertainer was infamis and excluded from the legal protections extended to citizens in good standing.

As a matter of law, a slave could not be raped; he was considered property and not legally a person. The slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage

46 – Lucius Antonius, the brother of Mark Antony, accuses Gaius Octavius for having "given himself to Aulus Hirtius in Spain for three hundred thousand sesterces.

42 – 39 BCE – Virgil writes the Eclogues, with Eclogue 2 a notable example of homoerotic Latin literature.

27 BCE – The Roman Empire is established under the rule of Augustus. The first recorded same-sex marriage occurs during his reign, homosexual prostitution is taxed, and if someone is caught being sexually passive with another male, a Roman citizen could lose his citizenship

26, 25 and 18 BCE – Tibullus writes his elegies, with references to homosexuality

1st millennium - 1st century

5 –15 CE – The Warren Cup is made - a Roman silver drinking cup decorated in relief with two images of male same-sex acts. Wall painting of female couple from the Suburban Baths at Pompeii

37 – 41 – Under the reign of Roman emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, taxation on prostitution is enacted thought the Roman Empire. Caligula also either exiled or contemplated exiling spintriae from Rome. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus reports that Caligula could only be restrained with difficulty, after lengthy pleadings, from having the spintriae thrown into the sea.

54 – Nero becomes Emperor of Rome. Nero married two men, Pythagoras and Sporus, in legal ceremonies, with Sporus accorded the regalia worn by the wives of the Caesars. Juvenal and Martial note (with disapproval) that male couples are having traditional marriage ceremonies.

79 – The eruption of Mount Vesuvius buries the coastal resorts of Pompeii and Herculaneum, preserving a rich collection of Roman erotic art, including representations of male-male and female-female.

98 – Trajan, one of the most beloved of Roman emperors, begins his reign. Trajan was well known for his homosexuality and fondness for young males. This was used to advantage by the king of Edessa, Abgar VII, who, after incurring the anger of Trajan for some misdeed, sent his handsome young son to make his apologies, thereby obtaining pardon. Publius Cornelius Tacitus writes Germania. In Germania, Tacitus writes that the punishment for those who engage in "bodily infamy" among the Germanic peoples is to "smother in mud and bogs under an heap of hurdles."

Tacitus also writes in Germania that the Germanic warrior-chieftains and their retinues would "in times of peace, beauty, and in times of war, a defense". Tacitus later wrote in Germania that priests of the Swabian sub-tribe, the Naharanvali, who "dress as women" to perform their priestly duties

2nd century

195 – Roman usurper Clodius Albinus prosecuted pederasty

200 – The Outlines of Pyrrhonism is published. In the book, Sextus Empiricus states that "amongst the Persians, it is the habit to indulge in intercourse with males, but amongst the Romans, it is forbidden by law to do so". He also stated in the book that "amongst us, sodomy is regarded as shameful or rather illegal, but by the Germanic they say, it is not looked on as shameful but as a customary thing.

It is said, too, that in Thebes long ago this practice was not held to be shameful, and they say that Meriones the Cretan was so called by way of indicating the Cretans' customed and some refer to this the burning love of Achilles for Patroclus. And what wonder, when both the adherents of the Cynic philosophy and the followers of Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes and Chrysippus, declare that this practice is indifferent?

2nd century – 3rd century

193 – 211 – Roman emperor Septimius Severus prescribed capital punishment for homosexual rape throughout the Roman Empire

3rd century

218 – 222 – Roman emperor Elagabalus marries a man named Zoticus, an athlete from Smyrna, in a lavish public ceremony at Rome amid the rejoicings of the public.

222 – 235 – Roman emperor Severus Alexander deported homosexuals who were active in public life. According to Christius, Alexander increased the penalties for homosexuality throughout the Roman Empire. According to Augustan History, Alexander decreed that the taxes on pimps, prostitutes, and exoleti should not be deposited in the public purse; instead, he ordered that these taxes should be used for restoring the theatre of Marcellus, the Circus Maximus, the amphitheatre, and the stadium build by Domitian in the Campus Martius. According to Ælius Lampridus, Alexander even contemplated making male prostitution illegal

244 – 249 – Roman emperor Marcus Julius Philippus either attempted to or did outlaw male prostitution throughout the Roman Empire

4rd century

305 – 306 – Council of Elvira (now Granada, Spain). This council was representative of the Western European Church and among other things, it barred pederasts the right to Communion

314 – Council of Ancyra (now Ankara, Turkey). This council was representative of the Eastern European Church and it excluded the Sacraments for 15 years to unmarried men under the age of 20 who were caught in homosexual acts, and excluded the man for life if he was married and over the age of 50.

306 – 337 – The Life of Constantine mentions a temple at Aphaca in Phoenicia, on a remote summit of Mount Libanus, being used by effeminate homosexual pagan priests, and says that this temple was destroyed by the command of Roman emperor Constantine I. It also states that Constantine passed a law ordering the extermination of effeminate homosexual pagan priests in Egypt.[

337 – Constantius II and Constans I become the 62nd Emperor of the Roman Empire. During their reigns, they both engaged in same-sex relationships

342 – The Roman emperors Constantius II and Constans I issue the following imperial decree for the Roman Empire:

"When a man marries in the manner of a woman, a woman about to renounce men, what does he wish, when sex has lost all its significance; when the crime is one which it is not profitable to know; when Venus is changed to another form; when love is sought and not found? We order the statutes to arise, the laws to be armed with an avenging sword, that those infamous persons who are now, or who hereafter may be, guilty may be subjected to exquisite punishment."

Theodosian Code 9.8.3

350 – Roman emperor Constans I is assassinated

350 – Roman emperor Constantius II dies.

380s – Ammianus Marcellinus publishes Res Gestae. In Res Gestae, Marcellinus writes that the Persians "are extravagantly given to venery, and are hardly contented with a multitude of concubines; they are far from immoral relations with boys." Also in Res Gestae, Marcellinus writes that "We have learned that these Taifali were a shameful folk, so sunken in a life of shame and obscenity, that in their country the boys are coupled with the men in a union of unmentionable lust, to consume the flower of their youth in the polluted intercourse of those paramours."

390 – The Roman emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I and Arcadius issue the following imperial decrees for the Roman Empire:

"We cannot tolerate the city of Rome, mother of all virtues, being stained any longer by the contamination of male effeminacy, nor can we allow that agrarian strength, which comes down from the founders, to be softly broken by the people, thus heaping shame on the centuries of our founders and the princes, Orientius, dearly and beloved and favoured. Your laudable experience will, therefore, punish among revenging flames, in the presence of the people, as required by the grossness of the crime.

All those who have given themselves up to the infamy of condemning their manly body, transformed into a feminine one, to bear practices reserved for the other sex, which have nothing different from women, carried forth – we are ashamed to say – from male brothels, so that all may know that the house of the manly soul must be sacrosanct to all and that he who basely abandons his own sex cannot aspire to that of another without undergoing the supreme punishment

All persons who have the shameful custom of condemning a man's body, acting the part of a woman's to the sufferance of alien sex (for they appear not to be different from women), shall expiate a crime of this kind in avenging flames in the sight of the people."

390 – 405 – Nonnus' Dionysiaca is the last known piece of Western literature for nearly 1,000 years to celebrate homosexual passion

6th century

506 – The Visigothic Code of Alaric II decreed burning at the stake for same-sex couples in the Visigothic Kingdom. Other punishments included public ostracism, shaving of the head, whipping, and castration

529 – The Christian emperor Justinian I made homosexuals a scapegoat for problems such as "famines, earthquakes, and pestilences."

533 – The Body of Civil Law goes into effect in the Byzantine Empire, enacting the following:

"In criminal cases public prosecutions take place under various statutes, including the Lex Julia de adulteris, "...which punishes with death, not only those who violate the marriages of others, but also those who dare to commit acts of vile lust with men."

Institutes IV. xviii .4, Body of Civil Law

576 – Death of Anastasia the Patrician who had spent much of her life living disguised as a male monk in a monastery at Alexandria

589 – The Visigothic kingdom in Spain, is converted from Arianism to Catholicism. This conversion leads to a revision of the law to conform to those of Catholic countries. These revisions include provisions for the persecution of gays and Jews

7th century

654 – The Visigothic Kingdom criminalized sodomy and the punishment for it is castration. This is the first European secular law to criminalize sodomy.

693 – In Iberia, Visigothic ruler Egica of Hispania and Septimania, demanded that a Church council confront the occurrence of homosexuality in the Kingdom. The Sixteenth Council of Toledo issued a statement in response, which was adopted by Egica, stating that homosexual acts be punished by castration, exclusion from Communion, hair shearing, one hundred stripes of the lash, and banishment into exile.

9th century

800 – 900 – During the Carolingian Renaissance, Alcuin of York, an abbot, wrote love poems to other monks in spite of numerous Church laws condemning homosexuality

2nd millennium - 11th century

1007 – The Decretum of Burchard of Worms equates homosexual acts with sexual transgressions such as adultery and argues, therefore, that it should have the same penance

1051 – Peter Damian writes the treatise Liber Gomorrhianus, in which he argues for stricter punishments for clerics failing their duty against "vices of nature

1061 – Pedro Dias and Muño Vandilas are married by a priest at a chapel in the Kingdom of León.

1100 – Ivo of Chartres tries to convince Pope Urban II about homosexuality risks. Ivo accused Rodolfo, archbishop of Tours, of convincing the King of France to appoint a certain Giovanni as bishop of Orléans. Giovanni was well known as Rodolfo's lover and had relations with the king himself, a fact of which the king openly boasted. Pope Urban, however, didn't consider this as a decisive fact: Giovanni ruled as bishop for almost forty years, and Rodolfo continued to be well known and respected

12th century

1102 – The Council of London took measures to ensure that the English public knew that homosexuality was sinful

1120 – Baldwin II of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, convenes the Council of Nablus to address the vices within the Kingdom. The Council calls for the burning of individuals who perpetually commit sodomy.

1140 – The Italian Monk Gratian compiles his work Concordia discordantium canonum in which he argues that sodomy is the worst of all the sexual sins because it involves using the member in an unnatural way

1164 – The English monk, Aelred of Rievaulx writes his De spiritali amicitia giving love between persons of the same gender a profound expression.

1179 – The Third Lateran Council of Rome issues a decree for the excommunication of sodomites.

13th century

1232 – Pope Gregory IX starts the Inquisition in the Italian City-States. Some cities called for banishment and/or amputation as punishments for 1st- and 2nd-offending sodomites and burning for the 3rd or habitual offenders

1260 – In the Kingdom of France, first-offending sodomites lost their testicles, second offenders lost their member, and third offenders were burned. Women caught in same-sex acts could be mutilated and executed as well.[

1265 – Thomas Aquinas argues that sodomy is second only to bestiality in the ranking of sins of lust.

1283 – The Coutumes de Beauvaisis dictats that convicted sodomites should not only be burned but also that their property would be forfeited.

14th century

1308-14 – Philip IV of France orders the arrest of all Templars on charges of heresy, idolatry and sodomy, but these charges are only a pretext to seize the riches of the order. Order leaders are sentenced to death and burned at the stake on 18 March 1314 by Notre Dame

1321 – Dante's Inferno places sodomites in the Seventh Circle.

1327 – The deposed King Edward II of England is killed, allegedly by forcing a red-hot poker through his rectum. Edward II had a history of conflict with the nobility, who repeatedly banished his former lover Piers Gaveston, the Earl of Cornwall

1347 – Rolandino Roncaglia is tried for sodomy, an event that caused a sensation in Italy. He confessed he "had never had sexual intercourse, neither with his wife nor with any other woman, because he had never felt any carnal appetite, nor could he ever have an erection of his virile member". After his wife died of plague, Rolandino started to prostitute himself, wearing female dresses because "since he has female look, voice and movements – although he does not have a female orifice, but has a male member and testicles – many persons considered him to be a woman because of his appearance".

1370s – Jan van Aersdone and Willem Case were two men executed in Antwerp in the 1370s. The charge against them was same sex intercourse which was illegal and strenuously vilified in medieval Europe. Aersdone and Case stand out because records of their names have survived. One other couple still known by name from the 14th century were Giovanni Braganza and Nicoleto Marmagna of Venice.

1395 – John Rykener, known also as Johannes Richer and Eleanor, was a transvestite prostitute working mainly in London (near Cheapside), but also active in Oxford. He was arrested in 1395 for cross-dressing and interrogated.

15th century

1424 – Bernardino of Siena preached for three days in Florence, Italy against homosexuality and other forms of lust, culminating in a pyre in which burned cosmetics, wigs and all sorts of articles for the beautification. He calls for sodomites to be ostracized from society, and these sermons alongside measures by other clergy of the time strengthens opinion against homosexuals and encourages the authorities to increase the measures of persecution

1431 – Nezahualcoyotl, Tlatoani of Texcoco, enacted laws making homosexuality a capital punishment by hanging in Texcoco

1432 – In Florence the first organization specifically intended to prosecute sodomy is established, the "Night Officials", which over the next 70 years arrest about 10,000 men and boys, succeeding in getting about 2,000 convicted, with most then paying fines.

1451 – Pope Nicholas V enables the papal Inquisition to persecute men who practice sodomy.

1471 – 1493 – According to Garcilaso de la Vega's Real Reviews of the Incas, during the reign of Sapa Inca Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui, he persecuted homosexuals. Yupanqui's general, Auqui Tatu, burned alive in public square all those for whom there was even circumstantial evidence of sodomy in H-acari valley, threatening to burn down whole towns if anyone engaged in sodomy. In Chincha, Yupanqui burned alive large numbers, pulling down their houses and any trees they had planted

1475 – In Peru, a chronicle written under the Capac Yupanqui government describes the persecution of homosexuals with public burnings and destruction of homes.

1476 – Florentine court records of 1476 show that Leonardo da Vinci and three other young men were charged with sodomy twice, and acquitted

1483 – The Spanish Inquisition begins. Sodomites were stoned, castrated, and burned. Between 1540 and 1700, more than 1,600 people were prosecuted for sodomy.

1492 – Desiderius Erasmus writes a series of love letters to a fellow monk while at a monastery in Steyn in the Netherlands.

1494 – Girolamo Savonarola criticizes the population of Florence for its "horrible sins" (mainly homosexuality and gambling) and exhorts them to give up their young and beardless lovers.

1497 – In Spain the Ferdinand and Isabella strengthen the sodomy laws hitherto applied only in the cities. An increase is made in the severity of the crime equating to treason or heresy, and the amount of evidence required for conviction is lowered, with torture permitted to extract confession. The property of the defendant is also confiscated.

15th century – 16th century

1493 – 1525 – According to Garcilaso de la Vega's Real Reviews of the Incas, during the reign of Sapa Inca Huayna Capac, Huayna Cápac, Guayna Capac, or Wayna Qhapaq, merely "bade" the people of Tumbez to give up sodomy and did not take any measures against the Matna, who "practiced sodomy more openly and shamelessly than all the other tribes."

16th century

1502 – A charge is brought against the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli on the grounds of sodomy.

1513 – Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a conquistador in modern-day Panama is described as throwing forty homosexual native indians to his dogs.

1523 – First of several charges of sodomy brought against the Florentine artist Benvenuto Cellini.

1532 – The Holy Roman Empire makes sodomy punishable by death. The Florentine artist Michelangelo begins writing over 300 love poems dedicated to Tomasso dei Cavalieri.

1533 – King Henry VIII passes the Buggery Act 1533 making anal intercourse and zoophilia punishable by death throughout England

1542 – Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca documents same sex marriages and men "who dress like women and perform the office of women, but use the bow and carry big loads" among a Native American tribe in his publication, The Journey of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca and His Companions from Florida to the Pacific 1528–1536.

1543 – Henry VIII gives royal assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1542, extending the buggery law into Wales.

1553 – Mary Tudor ascends the English throne and removes all of the laws that had been passed by Henry VIII during the English Reformation of the 1530s.

1558–1563 – Elizabeth I reinstates Henry VIII's old laws, including the Buggery Act 1533.

1561 – process of Wojciech z Poznania, who married Sebastian Słodownik, and lived with him for 2 years in Poznań. Both had female partners. On his return to Kraków, he married Wawrzyniec Włoszek. Wojciech, considered in public opinion as a woman, was burned for 'crimes against nature

17th century

1610 – The Colony of Virginia enacts a military order that criminalizes male sodomy, making it punishable by death.

1610 – In the Colony of Virginia, the military order banning sodomy ended when martial law was terminated upon the change in control of Virginia Colony.

1620 – Brandenburg-Prussia criminalizes sodomy, making it punishable by death.

1624 – Richard Cornish of the Virginia Colony is tried and hanged for sodomy.

1648 – In Canada's first-ever criminal trial for the crime of homosexuality, a gay military drummer stationed at the French garrison in Ville-Marie, New France is sentenced to death by the local Sulpician priests. After an intervention by the Jesuits in Quebec City, the drummer's life is spared on the condition that he accept the position of New France's first permanent executioner.

1649 – The first known conviction for lesbian activity in North America occurs in March when Sarah White Norman is charged with "Lewd behaviour with each other upon a bed" with Mary Vincent Hammon in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Hammon was under 16 and not prosecuted.

1655 – The Connecticut Colony passes a law against sodomy, which includes a punishment for lesbian intercourse as well.

1661 – The Colony of Virginia enacts English common law, thus criminalizing male-to-male sodomy again.

1683 – The Kingdom of Denmark criminalizes "relations against nature", making it punishable by death.

1688 - 1704 – Kagemachaya(ja) was open in Japan

18th century

1726 – Mother Clap's molly house in London is raided by police, resulting in the execution of three men.

1785 – Jeremy Bentham is one of the first people to argue for the decriminalization of sodomy in England.

1791 – The Kingdom of France (and Andorra) adopts a new penal code which no longer criminalizes sodomy. France thus becomes the first West European country to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults.

1791 – The novel Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Xueqin is published in China. It includes an openly bisexual character as well as an account of a gay-bashing.

1794 – The Kingdom of Prussia abolishes the death penalty for sodomy.

19th century

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–1895), a pioneer of LGBT rights

1800s – The earliest published studies of lesbian activity were written in the early 19th century.

1803 – The last recorded state sanctioned execution for male same-sex sodomy occurs in the Batavian Commonwealth and continental Europe.

1811 – Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) decriminalizes homosexual acts.

1814 – The term "Crime against nature" first used in the Criminal code in the United States.

1830 – Brazil decriminalizes homosexual acts.

1832 – Russia criminalizes homosexual acts making them punishable by up to five years exile in Siberia under Article 995 of its new criminal code.

1835 – For the first time in history, homosexuality becomes illegal in Congress Poland, Russian part of the Poland acquired after the Partitions of Poland after it became part of the Russian Empire.

1836 – The last known execution for homosexuality in Great Britain. James Pratt and John Smith are hanged at Newgate prison, London after being caught together in private lodgings

1852 – Portugal decriminalizes homosexual acts.

1856 – The first known reference to lesbians in Mormon history occurred in 1856, when a Salt Lake man noted in his diary that a Mormon woman was "trying to seduce a young girl.".

1858 – The Ottoman Empire (predecessor of Turkey) decriminalizes homosexuality; Timor-Leste legalises homosexuality.

1861 – In England, the Offences against the Person Act

1861 is amended to remove the death sentence for "buggery" (which had not been used since 1836). The penalty became imprisonment from 10 years to life.

1865 – San Marino decriminalizes sodomy.

1867 – On 29 August 1867, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs became the first self-proclaimed homosexual to speak out publicly for homosexual rights when he pleaded at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich for a resolution urging the repeal of anti-homosexual laws.

1869 – The term "homosexuality" appears in print for the first time in a German-Hungarian pamphlet written by Karl-Maria Kertbeny (1824–1882).

1870 – Joseph and His Friend: A Story of Pennsylvania is published, possibly the first American novel about a homosexual relationship

1871 – Homosexuality is criminalized throughout the German Empire by Paragraph 175 of the Reich Criminal Code; Guatemala and Mexico decriminalize homosexual acts.

1880 – The Empire of Japan decriminalized homosexual acts (anal sodomy), having only made them illegal during the early years of the Meiji Restoration.

1886 – In England, the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, outlawing sexual relations between men (but not between women) is given Royal Assent by Queen Victoria. Argentina decriminalizes homosexuality, while Portugal re-criminalizes homosexual acts.

1889 – In Italy, homosexuality is legalised; the Cleveland Street Scandal erupts in England.

1892 – The words "bisexual" and "heterosexual" are first used in their current senses in Charles Gilbert Chaddock's translation of Kraft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis.

1892 – Popular openly bisexual poet Edna St. Vincent Millay is born on 22 February.

1894 – Biologist and pioneer of human sexuality Alfred Kinsey is born on 23 June.

1895 – The trial of Oscar Wilde results in his being prosecuted under the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 for "gross indecency" and sentenced to two years hard labor in prison. In Brazil Adolfo Caminha publishes his controversial novel Bom-Crioulo (in English:The Black Man and the Cabin Boy) with homosexuality at its center and with a black man as the story's hero.

1897 – Magnus Hirschfeld founds the Scientific Humanitarian Committee on 14 May as the first ever official organization for homosexual rights and the repeal of Paragraph 175.

1897 – George Cecil Ives organizes the first homosexual rights group in England, the Order of Chaeronea.

20th century - 1900's

1903 – In New York City on 21 February 1903, New York police conducted the first United States recorded raid on a gay bathhouse, the Ariston Hotel Baths. 26 men were arrested and 12 brought to trial on sodomy charges; 7 men received sentences ranging from 4 to 20 years in prison.

1906 – Potentially the first openly gay American novel with a happy ending, Imre, is published.

1907 – Adolf Brand, the activist leader of the Gemeinschaft der Eigenen, working to overturn Paragraph 175, publishes a piece "outing" the imperial chancellor of Germany, Prince Bernhard von Bülow. The Prince sues Brand for libel and clears his name; Brand is sentenced to 18 months in prison.

1907–1909 – Harden-Eulenburg Affair in Germany


1910 – Emma Goldman first begins speaking publicly in favor of homosexual rights. Magnus Hirschfeld later wrote "she was the first and only woman, indeed the first and only American, to take up the defense of homosexual love before the general public."14 May 1928 issue of German lesbian periodical Die Freundin (Friedrich Radszuweit)

1912 – The first explicit reference to lesbianism in a Mormon magazine occurred when the "Young Woman's Journal" paid tribute to "Sappho of Lesbos "; the Scientific Humanitarian Committee of the Netherlands (NWHK), the first Dutch organization to campaign against anti-homosexual discrimination, is established by Dr. Jacob Schorer.

1913 – The word faggot is first used in print in reference to gays in a vocabulary of criminal slang published in Portland, Oregon: "All the faggots (sissies) will be dressed in drag at the ball tonight".

1917 – The October Revolution in Russia repeals the previous criminal code in its entirety—including Article 995. Bolshevik leaders reportedly say that "homosexual relationships and heterosexual relationships are treated exactly the same by the law."

1919 – In Berlin, Germany, Doctor Magnus Hirschfeld co-founds the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sex Research), a pioneering private research institute and counseling office. Its library of thousands of books was destroyed by Nazis in May 1933

1919 - Different From the Others, one of the first explicitly gay films, is released. Magnus Hirschfeld has a cameo in the film and partially funded its production.


1921 – In England an attempt to make lesbianism illegal for the first time in Britain's history fails.

1922 – A new criminal code comes into force in the USSR officially decriminalizing homosexual acts.

1923 – The word fag is first used in print in reference to gays in Nels Anderson's The Hobo: "Fairies or Fags are men or boys who exploit sex for profit."

1923 – Lesbian Elsa Gidlow, born in England, published the first volume of openly lesbian love poetry in the United States, titled "On A Grey Thread."

1924 – The first homosexual rights organization in America is founded by Henry Gerber in Chicago— the Society for Human Rights. The group exists for a few months before disbanding under police pressure. Paraguay and Peru legalize homosexuality.

1926 – The New York Times is the first major publication to use the word "homosexuality".

1927 - Karol Szymanowski, Poland's openly gay composer, is appointed chief of Poland's state-owned national music school, the Fryderyk Chopin Music Academy.

1928 – The Well of Loneliness by Radclyffe Hall is published in the UK and later in the United States. This sparks great legal controversy and brings the topic of homosexuality to public conversation.

1929 – On 22 May, Katharine Lee Bates, author of America the Beautiful dies. On 16 October, a Reichstag Committee votes to repeal Paragraph 175; the Nazis' rise to power prevents the implementation of the vote.


1931 - Mädchen in Uniform, one of the first explicitly lesbian films and the first pro-lesbian film, is released.

1931 - In Berlin in 1931, Dora Richter became the first known transgender woman to undergo vaginoplasty.

1932 – Poland codifies the homosexual and heterosexual age of consent equally at 15. Polish law had never criminalized homosexuality, although occupying powers had outlawed it in 1835.

1933 – New Danish penalty law decriminalizes homosexuality.

1933 – The National Socialist German Workers Party bans homosexual groups. Homosexuals are sent to concentration camps. Nazis burn the library of Magnus Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Research, and destroy the Institute; Denmark and Philippines decriminalizes homosexuality. Homosexual acts are recriminalized in the USSR. Assert that the Nazi opposition to homosexuality was 'selective'. In order to persecute other 'types' of people, the Nazi party used homosexual behavior as a convenient excuse.

The faithful Nazis, who were themselves blatant homosexuals, were tolerated.) Scholars and historians in general reject this allegation and Lively is named a holocaust revisionist by both the Southern Poverty Law Center and by the ADL.

1934 – Uruguay decriminalizes homosexuality. The USSR once again criminalizes muzhelozhstvo (specific Russian definition of "male sexual intercourse with male", literally "man lying with man"), punishable by up to 5 years in prison – more for the coercion or involvement of minors.

1936 – Mona's 440 Club, the first lesbian bar in America, opened in San Francisco in 1936. Mona's waitresses and female performers wore tuxedos and patrons dressed their roles.

1936 – Federico García Lorca, Spanish poet, is shot at the beginning of the Spanish civil war.

1937 – The first use of the pink triangle for gay men in Nazi concentration camps.

1938 – The word Gay is used for the first time on film in reference to homosexuality.

1939 – Frances V. Rummell, an educator and a teacher of French at Stephens College, published an autobiography under the title Diana: A Strange Autobiography; it was the first explicitly lesbian autobiography in which two women end up happily together. This autobiography was published with a note saying, "The publishers wish it expressly understood that this is a true story, the first of its kind ever offered to the general reading public


1940 – Iceland decriminalizes homosexuality; the NWHK is disbanded in the Netherlands in May due to the German invasion, and most of its archive is voluntarily destroyed, while the rest is confiscated by Nazi soldiers.

1941 – Transsexuality was first used in reference to homosexuality and bisexuality.

1942 – Switzerland decriminalizes homosexuality, with the age of consent set at 20.

1944 – Sweden decriminalizes homosexuality, with the age of consent set at 20 and Suriname legalizes homosexuality.

1945 – The Holocaust ends and it is estimated that between about 3,000 to about 9,000 homosexuals died in Nazi concentration and death camps, while it is estimated that between about 2,000 to about 6,000 homosexual survivors in Nazi concentration and death camps were required to serve out the full term of their sentences under Paragraph 175 in prison.

The first gay bar in post-World War II Berlin opened in the summer of 1945, and the first drag ball took place in American sector of West Berlin in the fall of 1945. Portugal decriminalises homosexuality for the second time in its history. Four honourably discharged gay veterans form the Veterans Benevolent Association, the first LGBT veterans' group. Gay bar Yanagi opened in Japan.

1946 – "COC" (Dutch acronym for "Center for Culture and Recreation"), one of the earliest homophile organizations, is founded in the Netherlands. It is the oldest surviving LGBT organization.

1947 – Vice Versa, the first North American lesbian publication, is written and self-published by Lisa Ben (real name Edith Eyde) in Los Angeles.

1948 – "Forbundet af 1948" ("League of 1948"), a homosexual group, is formed in Denmark.

1948 – The communist authorities of Poland make 15 the age of consent for all sexual acts, homosexual or heterosexual.

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